At PIMA we are thinking of all those adult educators and learners who are caught up in the devastating war in the Ukraine. In the article included in the document attached (p 214-231) authors, Oleg Smirnov and Mykyta Andrieiev, describe the Ukrainian experience in the public financing of educational initiatives intended to provide knowledge and skills for active citizenship. They consider the variety of approaches to understanding community, popular or liberal education, and dominating usage of the term ‘civic education’ in both the broader public and official documents, before focusing on recent developments in the area. Several cases of public budgeting, mainly in the framework of local municipalities programmes, are selected to provide evidence on how civil society organisations lobby for funding, what are the sources of financing, and which educational activities are supported.
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