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Non-state actors in education: Who chooses? Who loses?

This is the title of the new Global Education Monitoring Report (GEM) for the years 2021 / 22. As usual it is a voluminous A4 book of some 470 pages with a wealth of data and discussion. It looks at the different sub-sectors of the education system and identifies areas where non-state actors are playing a significant role. It is getting especially interesting where the Report looks at the reality and aims of SDG4 implementation as the education goal. The full Report may be downloaded via

Here are three quotations closely related to our field in adult learning and education:

- NGO and community organisations are the main providers in adult learning and education. (p. 179)

- Non-state actors are a driving force in adult learning and education. (p. 191)

- Community learning centers (CLC) are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in providing education opportunities meetings local communities´ needs. (p. 259)

There is also an interesting GEM Background Paper by Ulrike Hanemann: Non‐state actors in non‐formal youth and adult education (attached).

Heribert Hinzen

Hanemann, U_Non-state actors in nf youth and ad education_GEM Report 2021_22_380082eng
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